Monday, March 22, 2010

The Keys to Effective Dialogue in Novels

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by C. Patrick Schulze

To listen to a podcast of this article, click HERE.

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Dialogue is one of the premier aspects of your novel and every word of it should have a reason as to why it exists within your manuscript.
The reasons for dialogue in a fiction are varied, with the major goals listed below. 

1.  Provide backstory 
2.  Reveal a character’s personality, internal conflicts or mental state 
3.  Establish the tone or mood of a particular point in your story 
4.  Provide for character motivation 
5.  Build reader empathy 
6.  Build or expand on conflict 
7.  Move the plot forward 
8.  Increase or decrease the pace of your novel 
9.  Tweak the reader’s memory of past events within the novel 
10. Foreshadow Event yet to happen

        If your dialogue does not perform one or more of the above functions, you can most likely delete it from your manuscript. A good test is to read the scene without the questionable dialogue and see if your story, or any critical plot points, are affected. If they are not, cut the dialogue.
        Here are some tips for creating better dialogue.
        Punctuation Counts
        I hate to say this, but punctuation is key to effective dialogue. If you do not follow grammatical rules, your dialogue may not read as intended.
        A quick example:
                    “Maggie said No I will not go with you.”
        In this case, it’s difficult to understand if Maggie said the words or if someone else said Maggie said them. This distinction may have quite the effect on your story. As written, it holds little or no tension, whereas in the corrected sentence below, it implies danger and a more exciting plot.
                    Maggie said, “No! I will not go with you.”
        For more on dialogue punctuation, read THIS blog post.
        Dialogue is Different
        Dialogue happens when a character speaks, of course, but the secret is to not write so your characters speak the way people do. The secret is to write so it sounds like people speaking. It’s a tricky thing to do, but an essential aspect of writing effective dialogue.
        You’ll find people speak in clipped sentences peppered with, “um’s” and “ah’s” and the like. You’ll also find they speak in incomplete sentences, incomprehensible grunts and all sorts of other communication you cannot use in your manuscript. Further, and this is fact, ninety-five percent of the time people don’t answer the question asked. (Yeah, that’s true.) If you were to write as people speak, your reader would get bored at once and put down your book. Worse, they’d not recommend it to others.
        So, how do you interpret speech to read as effective dialogue? The secret to translate natural linguistics into dialogue is, cut all the dull parts. (I think it was Alfred Hitchcock who first penned that phrase.) If you study the way people speak, you’ll learn the dull parts are most of what they say. Once you’ve identified and eliminated all the inconsequential words, which is most of any actual discussion, you’ll be left with the meat. And the meat is all that goes into your novel.
        Here’s an example of how a real conversation might sound and how it could be altered to read as effective novel dialogue:
        John said, “What did you do today?”
        Mary answered, “Uh, nothing really. I went to the store, bought a pair of black slacks. What did you do?”
        “Not much.”
        “Oh, by the way, did you know I ran into Sara while I was shopping?”
        “Sara!” John was surprised to hear her name.
        When you read this exchange, you’ll notice the tension rose when Mary mentioned Sara’s name. In that case, Sara is the turning point to this exchange and the only part of this conversation necessary for novel dialogue.
        If you compare their conversation with the purposes of dialogue listed above, you’ll see much of this exchange need not be included in your novel. If you eliminate the “dull parts” the result would cut fifty-one words to twenty-one and might read as follows:
        John said, “What did you do today?”
        Mary answered, “I ran into Sara.”
        “Sara!” John was surprised to hear her name.
        Compare this second exchange to our ten reasons to include dialogue in your novel and you’ll find it adheres to seven of the ten rationale on the list.  Can you identify the seven it does match? If so, you’re well on your way to understand the use of dialogue in novels.
        Once you’ve learned how to write effective dialogue, you’ll see there is a secret in how it relates to your plot. As with the mention of Sara, turning points are often found within your dialogue. That is, things don’t often just happen to characters, characters tell each other what transpires or is about to transpire.
        A “rule” found within the craft of writing says dialogue should comprise as much as fifty percent of your book, specifically your word count. Now we all know there are no rules in writing, but the idea does offer an indication of how powerful and meaningful dialogue is to your novel. Therefore, it is one of aspects to the craft of writing you should spend a great deal of your time to study and learn.
        I hope you know by now I wish you only best-sellers.
        C. Patrick Schulze
        Author of the emerging novel, “Born to be Brothers.”


        1. Great Post. I have a handout on Dialogue Basics on my website.

        2. Thanks, Terry.

          Readers, take a peek at Terry's article on Dialogue Basics, Terry. Lot's to learn there: